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  İngilizcede DÜZENLİ DÜZENSİZ FİİLLER VE ANLAMLARI
  Present Perfect Tense
  Present Perfect Tense ALREADY YET
  Present Perfect Tense SINCE FOR
  İngilizcedeki Bazı Zıt anlamlı sıfatlar ve anlamları
  Tense Table Zaman Tablosu
  Present Perfect Tense EVER NEVER
  İngilizcede sıfa zarf ve isimlerin karşılaştırılması 7. ve 8. sınıflar için .
  both neither either
  Subordinate Conjuctions
  want would like
  İngilizce'de en sık kullanılan phrasal verb'lerin kullanımı ve listesi
  isimfiil ve mastar fiiller
  so that, in case, in case of
  ( IF CLAUSES ) ŞART CÜMLELERİ type 0 type1
  İngilizce'de Modals (lar)
  Phrasal Verbs
  Suffıxes(sonekler ) And Prefıxes(önekler)
  modals; can may should...
  Simple Future Tense
  PRESENT PERFECT TENSE genel
  PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
  SIMPLE PAST TENSE
  PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
  SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
  Adverb (Zarf)
  Sıfatlar
  Adjective2
  a an
  The -a - an
  the-a-an 2
  modal-larda kesinlik derecesi
  modals
  precautionary measures
  expressing preferences
  Personal pronouns, Possessive determiners, Possessive pronouns
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modal-larda kesinlik derecesi
Modals - Degrees of Certainty

will/might

 

 

Expressing degrees of certainty
  • will
  • may
  • might
  • could
  • it is possible that

 

 

polar bears

 

Polar bears will perish. (100% kesin)

They might not survive in the arctic. (< 50% kesinlik)

 

 

 

Modals - Past & Future Predictions

will/would

 

 

Referring to future events and activities
  • will  intent
  • will   expected or scheduled activities
  • wouldn't  refusal
  • would have  expectation lost

 

 

 

intent
Calendar

 

 

 

Next month, I will get a raise in salary. (I am determined to do so.)

Next month, I will get a raise. (It's scheduled in my contract.)

 

 

 

 

Modals - Would Expressions

would

Staing preferences, past habits, and making requests or excuses
  • would you rather have X or Y  (preference)
  • would you like  (preference)
  • would (used to)
  • would you(request)
  • would have(make an excuse)
  • would rather have (past preference)

waiter

family

 

Would you like some coffee?

Would you rather have tea or coffee?

 

 

 

On Sundays, we would visit our relatives

On Sundays, we used to visit our relatives

 

 

 

Modals – Expectation

should

 

 

Giving advice, expressing personal expectations and social conventions

 

  • should  (expectation)
  • will (expectation)
  • are supposed to  (social convention)
  • ought to (option or advice)
  • should have (expectation not met)
  • would have  (excuse)

 

mail in movies

 

 

The movie should be available next week.

The movie will be available next week. (expectation)

 

Should we wear black pants to work? (convention)

Are we supposed to wear black pants to work?(convention)

 

You should try ordering your movies online.(suggestion)

She ought not to talk on her cell phone when she's with you. (advice)

 

 

 

Modals - Options & Advice

could/should

 

 

Offering solutions and problem-solving
  • could
  • should
plubmer

You could try using a hammer. (option, another choice)

You should be careful. (advice)

 

 

Modals – Degrees of Advisability

should/must

 

 

 

Expressing advice and urgency
  • advisability
  • advice
  • necessity
  • not required
lawyer speaking at podium

Students should be honest about downloading copyrighted music.

They must not download copyrighted music.

 They have to respect artists' rights to earn fair profits.

The Recording Industry doesn't have to price their CDs so high.

 

 

 

Modals – Conclusions

musthave

 

 

Making guesses and conclusions
  • might
  • might have
  • must
  • must have

 

sad

She's sad. She might miss her family or she might be disappointed.

Also, she is alone. She has nothing but a glass of absinthe (strong alcohol).

She must be depressed.

 

 

Modals - Ability

can/could

 

 

 

Indicating ability to do something
  • physical ability
  • mental ability
  • potential
  • manage to

 

 

man lifting car

I can lift a car.

I can change a tire.

Driving drunk can cause a fatal accident.

I was able to pass my driving test. (single event)

I could drive very well. (ongoing)

 

 

 

Modals - Permission

may/can

 

 

Asking permission and making requests
  • permission
  • request
  • invitation / suggestion

 

nurse with needle
jaz dancers

You may leave early.

You can leave early.

May I see your arm? (I or we) (polite)

 

Shall we dance?
Let's dance
Would you like to dance ?
 

 

 

 

Future Perfect

modal agr

 

 

Using future modals in complex sentences – with other connectors
  • so that
  • which
  • that
  • because

 

 

iphone

Apple said that it would introduce more functionality with the newer software.

 

 

 

futureperfect

 

 

Predicting completion in the future.

 

future perfect

 

Also see "by the time" 

empty board room

 

By 5 o'clock, we will have finished our meeting.

 

 

Review

modal rev

 

 

Reviewing present and past differences in modal meanings

 

Do these modals mean the same in present and past tense?

  • will – would – would have
  • can – could – could have
  • may – might – might have
  • must – had to - must have
  • and more

 

 

Cut the hedge
I will cut the hedge.
would have
I would have cut the hedge.

I can drive there.   (ability)

I could drive there.  (permission / ability / potential)

 

Shall we go in there?  (invitation)

Should we go in there?  (warning)

 

You must eat this. (necessity)

You must have eaten this. (conclusion)

 

 

 

modal prac

Identifying modal meanings through context
  • possibility
  • expectation
  • advice
  • permission
  • necessity
  • conclusion

 

thinking

He ____ be crazy to do that.

  may  might   could  can  must

 

modalquiz

Auto-correcting modal self-quiz - multiple choice
apartment hunting

Finding an apartment in San Francisco ____ be very difficult.

 

modalarticle

Modal use – In context
  • identifying modals in a paragraph
  • identifying tense use

 

Recording Industry image

It might put Napster out of business, and if you're a devoted Napster user, this is certainly sad news. But Metallica's actions could bring the controversy closer to home. The fact that Metallica was able to obtain the screen names of these users should concern those who post and download files on Napster.

 

 

 

Related Pages

bythetime

Predicting that something will be completed before another event or time
  • by the time vs. when

 Located in Adverb Summary

thinking

By the time I leave work, the sun will be setting. (ongoing)
By the time I leave work, the sun will have set. (completed)

 

late-advice

Hypothetical past: advice given after an accicdent; opportunities not taken
  • If ...then
  • past + participle
  • could have, might have, should have 

 Located in  Conditional Summary

Titanic Lifeboats

Passengers could have taken other smaller trans-Atlantic ships.
The captain could have chosen a more southern trans-atlantic route.

The owners should have supplied enough lifeboats for everyone .

 

 
 

 
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